Saturday, November 21, 2009

Biodiesel Production from Algae Oil

From last post, we know Algae can be produce become bio diesel oil. Here, I will share how to make Bio Diesel Fuel from Algae. One of process name for that, usually called Transesterification. Algae yields around 100,000 gallons of algae oil per year. In contrast, one acre of soybeans only produces about 50 gallons of soybean oil a year, while one acre of corn yields about 29 gallons of oil per year. The largest benefit to date is that the Algae farms can be built virtually anywhere.


Algae oil is highly viscous, with viscosities ranging 10–20 times those of no. 2 Diesel fuel. The high viscosity is due to the large molecular mass and chemical structure of oils which in turn leads to problems in pumping, combustion and atomization in the injector systems of a diesel engine. Therefore, a reduction in viscosity is important to make high-viscous oil a suitable alternative fuel for diesel engines.

There are a number of ways to reduce vegetable oil's viscosity. These methods include; transestrification, pyrolysis (Pyrolysis Definition from AFR), micro Emulsion (Emulsions & Emulsification – from Wikipedia), blending and thermal depolymerization. One of the most common methods used to reduce oil viscosity in the Biodiesel industry is called transesterification. It involves chemical conversion of the oil into its corresponding fatty ester.

Other methods of producing Bio-diesel from Algae Oil, other than transesterification, that have been considered to reduce the high viscosity of vegetable oil or algae oil are:
  • Dilution of 25 parts of plant / algae oil with 75 parts of diesel fuel
  • Micro emulsions with short chain alcohols (e.g. Ethanol or Methanol)
  • Thermal decomposition, which produces alkanes, alkenes, carboxylic acids acids and aromatic compounds
  • Catalytic cracking, which produces alkanes, cycloalkanes and alkybenzenes


However, when compared with the above, the Transesterification process appears to be the best choise, as the physical characteristics of fatty acid esters (bio diesel) are very close to those of diesel fuel, and the process is relative simple. Furthermore, the methyl or ethyl esters of fatty acids can be burned directly in unmodified diesel engines, with very low deposit.
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Friday, November 20, 2009

Alternative Energy: Fuel From Algae

Maybe we rarely hear about Algae. But we just know it only in biology subject in the schools or collages. Algae are a large and diverse group of simple, typically autotrophic organisms, ranging from unicellular to multicellular forms. The largest and most complex marine forms are called seaweeds. They are photosynthetic, like plants, and "simple" because they lack the many distinct organs found in land plants. For that reason they are currently excluded from being considered plants.

Though the prokaryotic Cyanobacteria (commonly referred to as Blue-green Algae) were traditionally included as "Algae" in older textbooks, many modern sources regard this as outdated and restrict the term Algae to eukaryotic organisms. All true algae therefore have a nucleus enclosed within a membrane and chloroplasts bound in one or more membranes. Algae constitute a paraphyletic and polyphyletic group, as they do not include all the descendants of the last universal ancestor nor do they all descend from a common algal ancestor, although their chloroplasts seem to have a single origin.

Algae lack the various structures that characterize land plants, such as phyllids and rhizoids in nonvascular plants, or leaves, roots, and other organs that are found in tracheophytes. Many are photoautotrophic, although some groups contain members that are mixotrophic, deriving energy both from photosynthesis and uptake of organic carbon either by osmotrophy, myzotrophy, or phagotrophy. Some unicellular species rely entirely on external energy sources and have limited or no photosynthetic apparatus.

Nearly all algae have photosynthetic machinery ultimately derived from the Cyanobacteria, and so produce oxygen as a by-product of photosynthesis, unlike other photosynthetic bacteria such as purple and green sulfur bacteria. Fossilized filamentous algae from the Vindhya basin have been dated back to 1.6 to 1.7 billion years ago.

The first alga to have its genome sequenced was Cyanidioschyzon merolae.


Today, Algae is one of alternative energy that can be used for renewable fuel. Energy from Algae presents an opportunity you cannot afford to ignore. Deriving energy from algae is considered the Holy Grail of alternative energy. Algae, a third-generation biofuel feedstock, present one of the most exciting possibilities as a future solution to our energy problems, especially that of transportation fuel. In the last few years, activity in this field has been accelerating fast.

Why are algae so exciting from a renewable energy standpoint? For a number of reasons :
  • The yields of oil and fuels from algae are much higher (10-100 times) than competing energy crops
  • Algae can grow practically anywhere, thus ensuring that there is no competition with food crops.
  • Algae are excellent bio remediation agents - they have the potential to absorb massive amounts of CO2 and can play an important role in sewage and wastewater treatment.
  • Algae are the only feedstock that have the potential to completely replace world's consumption of transportation fuels.
  • Algae are already being used in a wide variety of industries and applications, and many newer applications are being discovered. Such a wide range of end-uses enable companies to produce both fuels and non-fuel products from the same algae feedstock
Algae can produce several fuel products, there are:
  • Bio diesel
  • Hydrogen
  • Methane
  • Ethanol


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Renewable Energy: Hydrogen Fuel

Today, the fossil fuel slowly depleted. All of researcher in the world has trying to find the others kind of fuel. Now, the researchers has one of new solution. Hydrogen Fuel.

Hydrogen is one of two natural elements that combine to make water. Hydrogen is not an energy source, but an energy carrier because it takes a great deal of energy to extract it from water. It is useful as a compact energy source in fuel cells and batteries. Many companies are working hard to develop technologies that can efficiently exploit the potential of hydrogen energy. This page lists articles about hydrogen fuel as an alternative energy source.


Hydrogen fuel enhancement
is a term used to describe the use of a mixture of hydrogen and conventional hydrocarbon fuel in an internal combustion engine (ICE). The hydrogen can be stored as a second fuel, reformed from the conventional fuel, or in theory produced through the electrolysis of water.

There has been a great deal of research into fuel mixtures, such as gasoline and nitrous oxide injection. Mixtures of hydrogen and hydrocarbons is no exception. These sources suggested that there could be fuel efficiency saving and reduced emission through the addition of hydrogen to conventional fuels. For example, one research project added hydrogen to an automobile engine to run the engine leaner:

Lean-mixture-ratio combustion in internal-combustion engines has the potential of producing low emissions and higher thermal efficiency for several reasons. First, excess oxygen in the charge further oxidizes unburned hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide. Second, excess oxygen lowers the peak combustion temperatures, which inhibits the formation of oxides of nitrogen. Third, the lower combustion temperatures in­crease the mixture specific heat ratio by decreasing the net dissociation losses. Fourth, as the specific heat ratio increases, the cycle thermal efficiency also increases, which gives the potential for better fuel economy.

Many of these sources have also warn that it would require modifications in ICE's air/fuel ration, engine timing, and other design elements to realize these advantages. This would be expected for any change in an engines fuel composition.

Hydrogen fuel enhancement from electrolysis has been promoted for use with diesel trucks and often with adaptation of the water-fuelled cars scam. However recent tests by consumer watch groups have shown negative results.

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Friday, September 25, 2009

High Efficiency Energy Saving Lamp

• High energy saving • Protection of eyes • Very quick installation
• Extended life span of 15000 hrs •
High lighting quality • Improved power factor


video

Saving Comparison Table

* Depending on the fitting, deviation are possible



CASE STUDY



Consider the case of a office in the building with a total of 1000 luminaries using existing lighting of 36W T8 fluorescent lamps and standard electromagnetic ballast. With the T5 Fixture, we can convert the existing system to energy efficient system and calculate the electricity costs saved by the T5 tube.

Many enterprises are aware that their electricity bill is a large portion of their total operating cost, the application of T5 Fixture is simple. The saving rates guaranteed, thus adding to your bottom line profits.

The calculation is based on 24 operation hours per day and 365 days per years for 1000pcs of fluorescent lamp.
Electricity cost per unit (kWh) is $0.3045

Energy Saving Per Fitting = 48W – 28W = 20W

Energy Saving Per day = 20W x 24 hrs x 1000pcs = 480 kWh

Energy Saving Annually = 480 kWh x 365 days = 175,200 kWh

Amount Saved Per Year = 175,200 kWh x $0.3045 = $53,348.40


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Thursday, September 3, 2009

More: Home Energy Audit (Energy Star, US Only)

Home Energy Audits

A home energy audit is often the first step in making your home more efficient. An audit can help you assess how much energy your home uses and evaluate what measures you can take to improve efficiency. But remember, audits alone don't save energy. You need to implement the recommended improvements. ENERGY STAR provides extensive information about home improvement projects to enhance energy efficiency, lower utility bills, and increase comfort.

You can perform a simple energy audit yourself, or have a professional energy auditor perform a more thorough audit.

Do-It-Yourself Audits

If you have five minutes and your last 12 months of utility bills, use the ENERGY STAR Home Energy Yardstick to compare your home's energy efficiency to similar homes across the country and get recommendations for energy-saving home improvements from ENERGY STAR. You will also need to enter some basic information about your home (such as zip code, age, square footage, and number of occupants). If you don't have your bills, contact your utility for a 12-month summary.

Hire a Professional Home Energy Auditor

If you are interested in getting specific recommendations for improving the efficiency of your home, consider contacting a professional Home Energy Auditor. A professional auditor can use a variety of techniques and equipment to determine the energy efficiency of your home. Thorough audits often use equipment such as blower doors, which measure the extent of leaks in the building envelope, and infrared cameras, which reveal hard-to-detect areas of air infiltration and missing insulation.

Your first step should be to contact your utility to see if they offer free or discounted energy audits to their customers. If not, you can hire a home energy professional, such as a certified Home Energy Rater, to evaluate your home's energy efficiency.

To find a Home Energy Rater, visit the ENERGY STAR for Homes Partner Locator.

Home Performance with ENERGY STAR

Where available, Home Performance with ENERGY STAR can help you cost-effectively improve your home's energy efficiency. Specially-trained contractors evaluate your home using state-of-the-art equipment, recommend comprehensive improvements that will yield the best results, and help you to get the work done.

Find out if Home Performance with ENERGY STAR is offered near you.

Home Performance with ENERGY STAR

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Simple Home Energy Audit

An energy audit is an inspection, survey and analysis of energy flows in a building, process or system with the objective of understanding the energy dynamics of the system under study. Typically an energy audit is conducted to seek opportunities to reduce the amount of energy input into the system without negatively affecting the output(s). When the object of study is an occupied building then reducing energy consumption while maintaining or improving human comfort, health and safety are of primary concern. Beyond simply identifying the sources of energy use, an energy audit seeks to prioritize the energy uses according to the greatest to least cost effective opportunities for energy savings.

Home Energy Audit

An energy audit of a home may involve recording various characteristics of the building envelope including the walls, ceilings, floors, doors, windows, and skylights. For each of these components the area and resistance to heat flow (R-value) is measured or estimated. The leakage rate or infiltration of air through the building envelope is of concern which are strongly affected by window construction and quality of door seals such as weatherstripping. The goal of this exercise is to quantify the building's overall thermal performance. A simplified approach called the UA delta-T method [1] can be used for good approximate results. The audit may also assess the efficiency, physical condition, and programming of mechanical systems such as the heating, ventilation, air conditioning equipment, and thermostat.

A home energy audit may include a written report estimating energy use given local climate criteria, thermostat settings, roof overhang, and solar orientation. This could show energy use for a given time period, say a year, and the impact of any suggested improvements per year. The accuracy of energy estimates are greatly improved when the homeowner's billing history is available showing the quantities of electricity, natural gas, fuel oil, or other energy sources consumed over a one or two-year period.

Some of the greatest effects on energy use are user behavior, climate, and age of the home. An energy audit may therefore include an interview of the homeowners to understand their patterns of use over time. The energy billing history from the local utility company can be calibrated using heating degree day and cooling degree day data obtained from recent, local weather data in combination with the thermal energy model of the building. Advances in computer-based thermal modeling can take into account many variables affecting energy use.

A home energy audit is often used to identify cost effective ways to improve the comfort and efficiency of buildings. In addition, homes may qualify for tax credits from local and central governments.

Free energy audits from your utility company are a popular way to save up to 30% on your energy bill... but you can always do it yourself! See it on this video below.

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Simple Way to Save Energy

With the cost of energy skyrocketing, many people are turning to things like solar to shave their power bills. But you donate have to spend 10s of thousands of dollars to make a difference. Money reporter Stacy Johnson explains how little things can make a big difference.




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Wednesday, September 2, 2009

Motor with 60Hz or 50Hz frequency. What is the impact?

Frequency is an electrical power source specifications existing or selected by a particular country. Another thing is the voltage specification or voltage. Selection is determined by what standards they will be adopted by the state, they will be adopted both standards. If using 60 Hz NEMA, IEC will use 50 Hz. Use of motor 60Hz to 50 Hz electrical supply of course there is the influence and vice verse. Frequency of the most influential in the motor rotation in the electricity supply. We need to know how much influence it, what its impact on usability factors, age of motor and advantages or disadvantages.

NEMA and IEC Standard
NEMA standard used in northern America, especially the United States must be added that states that use the technology or buying plants from the United States. Meanwhile, the IEC adopted by some countries in the world except in America. In addition to other standards such as BS2613 British, German VDE and Japanese JIS 0530. Usually another standard that is adopted IEC metric.
NEMA or the National Electrical Manufacturers Association based in the United States.
IEC, International Electrotechnical Commission based in Europe.

Motor Specifications
Below is an example specification of an electric motor as an example for discussion in connection with the use of frequencies. What is difficult to avoid is that we bought a standard NEMA motors to be installed in the country that use IEC standard or vice verse. Requiring knowledge of electricity specifications and mechanical specifications of both standards.

Example: 100HP Motor, 230/460 V, 60 Hz,
Understanding of these specifications, are as follows:
  • NEMA write with horse power capacity, 100 HP as the capacity or ability to move a load by the motor 100 horse power. Usually IEC stated capacity with KW (100 HP = 74.57 KW)
  • 230V, motor winding consists of two sets of each phase and connected in parallel
  • 460V, motor winding consists of two sets of each phase and connected in series.
  • 60Hz, the frequency of electricity networks should be available for these motors.

Effects on Motor 230/460 V, 60 Hz, if the tide on the frequency 50 Hz

Freq pengruhnya

(Retrieved from the table Leeson Motor Catalog)

Install the motor on 60 Hz 50 Hz Frequency
Power-grid in Europe and in almost all other countries use the system frequency 50Hz, except for North America to use 60Hz.

What is the effect of performance, put the motor in the frequency 60Hz. 50Hz? Is safe enough?
The answer to doubt "yes" or maybe "yes no".

3 phase 60Hz motor can be operated quite satisfactorily (in accordance with the nameplate) at 50Hz frequency power supply if the voltage / voltage at the same lower frequency ratio decreased.

So motor 60Hz, 460V at 50Hz, if installed, 380V will produce a satisfactory performance according to nameplate horsepower, and the rotation axis of rotation of 50/60 is only listed on the nameplate. So if 60Hz to 50Hz, that should Voltage 5 / 6 × 460V = 383V

Motor 60Hz 230V at 50Hz if installed 230V, may not satisfy without reducing horsepower for 0,80-0,85 factors. So HP mobilized rated load should be decreased, this relationship with the heat effects arising in the winding.

With the guidance table, it can be concluded that 100HP Motor, 230V/460V, 60 Hz, motor 1800Rpm connected 230V winding mounted on 220V / 50 Hz will occur as follows:
  • Full load torque required 120%
  • Round synchronous stator falls to 5 / 6 or 83.3% of 0833 × 1800 = 1500 Rpm
  • Full load current to 115%
  • Efficiency at full load down 2%
  • Power factor down 3-4%
  • Locked rotor torque rated up from the 130 to 135%
  • Breakdown torque, up from rated to 120 to 125%
  • Locked rotor currents from the rated up to 106%
  • Heat in motor up to 153%
  • Magnetic noise increases.
The conclusion of this case that the motor decreases as age increases, which means increasing the heat.
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Monday, August 31, 2009

Energy Saving For Pump and Fan Application

This one of ways to saving your energy. Usually this applicable at industrial and building. On that application, 72% of electricity consumed is used to turn motors. You can follow me save our world by saving the energy, by click here and find out more.

If you have any questions or you need the details, don't hesitate to contact me.




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Monday, August 10, 2009

Identify Hidden Cost in Mechatronic System

When first time I work in EPC company, I had nothing experience about mechatronics system. Nevertheless, I'm studied it hard. Now, I can know all things about it.

Now, I has found hidden energy saving system in mechantronic system. I never realize that, but it's true. You and I can identify hidden cost and make the most of potential savings.

This saving can be used in industrial appliance like convenience food, pharmacy and process integrator. Please click here to find more about mechatronics energy savings. I got it from Sartorius Mechatronic System, German company.
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Saturday, July 18, 2009

Energy Saving Calculator Software for Motor (Pump & Fans) Application

I had got it from Schneider Electric. Please click here for download.

Please use it wisely. This software has more powerful tools for energy saving calculation in motor and pump application, usually called HVAC Application.

Please don't hesitate to contact me if you have any questions.
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Wednesday, July 15, 2009

Energy Saving Calculator for Motor (Pump & Fans) Application

I have some reference for saving Calculation for Motor (Pump & Fans). Usually, this called HVAC Application. I had this calculation from Schneider Electric

Reference curves

Active power consumed by a frequency converter associated with a variable load torque (quadratic) load can be calculated as shown below.

The load torque can be defined

in the following way (mechanical friction is ignored):

C = k1 x n^2 (1)

with n = Motor rot

ation speed
k1 = Constant (varies as a function of application type)

Mechanical power of this drive is:

P = C x n
...using here expressi

on (1), we obtain:

P = k1 x n^3

In addition, the frequency converter supplies electrical power to the motor at efficiency of around 97%:

P SPEED DRIVE = P / 0.97

Mechanical power required to obtain a given flow is extracted from the following POWER-FLOW curves:

Fans
Flow
Downstream
Upstream
Variable speed drive
10
0.18
0.34
0.1
20
0.36
0.36
0.1
30
0.55
0.39
0.1
40
0.71

0.42

0.13
50
0.85
0.46
0.18
60
0.92
0.51
0.24
70
0.98
0.57
0.37
80
1
0.64
0.54
90
1
0.76
0.77
100
1
1
1
Pumping
Flow
Recirculation
With valve
Variable speed drive
10
0.71
0.39
0.1
20
0.79
0.49
0.1
30
0.86
0.58
0.1
40
0.9

0.68

0.13
50
0.94
0.75
0.18
60
0.97
0.82
0.24
70
0.98
0.89
0.37
80
0.99
0.94
0.54
90
1
1
0.77
100
1
1
1

For a valve according to manometric height H (with variable speed drive) :

Flow
H=0
H=0.5
H=0.85
10
0.06
0.15
0.35
20
0.08
0.18
0.37
30
0.1
0.22
0.41
40
0.11

0.27

0.45
50
0.13
0.35
0.52
60
0.22
0.43
0.58
70
0.34
0.53
0.66
80
0.51
0.66
0.78
90
0.73
0.82
0.9
100
1
1
1

The inclusion of a variable speed drive can satisfy these requirements by eliminating the use of control valves, which operate by reducing the effective cross-section of the pipe.

In addition, variation in motor efficiency as a function of its speed must be taken into account. To determine motor efficiency at a given speed, the following EFFICIENCY-SPEED curve is used:

Speed
Efficiency
10
0.7
20
0.78
30
0.85
40
0.89
50
0.93
60
0.96
70
0.97
80
0.98
90
0.99
100
1

Formulas

Without variable speed drive, active power consumed by a motor driving a pump or fan will therefore be:

P WITHOUT SPEED DRIVE = P RATED MOTOR x (1/s) x (I / In) x f1(Q)

... with s = Rated efficiency of motor according to speed

I / In = Current absorbed by the motor at 100% load / rated current

f1(Q) = Power as a function of flow for a fan or pump (see curves above for precise values)

The reactive power is obtained as follows:

Q = P WITHOUT SPEED DRIVE x (sin phi/cos phi)


With variable speed drive, active power consumed by a motor driving a pump or fan for a given flow will therefore be:

P WITH SPEED DRIVE = P RATED MOTOR x 1/s x (I / In) x f2(Q) x 1/v x f3(Q)

... with f2(Q) = Power as a function of flow with variable speed drive (see curves above for precise values)

f3(Q) = Efficiency as a function of speed (see curves above for precise values)

w = Motor efficiency correction factor as a function of speed
v = Variable speed drive efficiency

Reactive power consumption of the motor-variable speed drive assembly is zero.

When calculation of power consumed for a given flow has been completed, just multiply this by the number of hours of operation at this flow to obtain the energy consumption. The final result is obtained by adding together all the energy consumptions obtained for the various flows.



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Energy Saving Calculator for Lighting System

Here I had found some link that very usable for you if you want to know more about energy saving calculation and virtual appliance for lighting system. I found it from GE Lighting System and OSRAM.

For virtual appliance, you can click here for design for your living room with light based on Room Selection.

For Cost of Light Calculation, you can click here for make comparison.

You can use OSRAM CFL Energy Saver Calculation Tool for Customer, click here.

OSRAM DULUX SUPERSTAR

OSRAM DULUX SUPERSTAR meets the highest standards in quality and durability. Production processes based on the most cutting-edge technologies ensure a lifespan of up to ten years. Integrated Quickstart technology provides a rapid increase in luminous flux after power-on.

* Lifespan of up to 10 years
* Five-year guarantee
* Up to 80 percent less energy consumed than by conventional bulbs
* Patented Quickstart technology
* With E14 and E27 screw base
* From 8 to 24 W

OSRAM DULUXSTAR

OSRAM DULUXSTAR is the energy-saving lamp that slots into everyday life. A wide variety of compact versions ensure that even your smallest light source can become a big electricity saver. No matter what the size, DULUXSTAR burns bright for up to six years.

* Lifespan of up to 6 years
* Three-year guarantee
* Up to 80 percent less energy consumed than by conventional bulbs
* Wide range of different shapes
* With E14 and E27 screw base
* From 5 to 24 W, 30 W

For You can use OSRAM CFL Energy Saver Calculation Tool for Professional, click here.

OSRAM DULUX EL LONGLIFE

With up to 500,000 switching cycles and an extra long average life of 15,000 hours OSRAM DULUX EL LONGLIFE lamps meet the highest demands in terms of frequent switching and durability - in the professional/commercial sector and for high-quality domestic applications.

* Lifespan of up to 15,000 hours
* with an E14, E27 or B22d base
* in various sizes and wattages from 3 to 30 W
* in warm white, cool white and daylight colors
* also as Globe and Reflector versions

OSRAM DULUX EL

With more than 10,000 switching cycles and a long average life of 10,000 hours OSRAM DULUX EL lamps are the entry-level products for professional requirements in terms of frequent switching and durability.

* Lifespan of up to 10,000 hours
* with an E14, E27 or B22d base
* in various sizes and wattages from 5 to 24 W
* in warm white, cool white and daylight colors
* as CLASSIC A, CLASSIC B and Globe lamps

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